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GATE CS 2016 Official Paper: Shift 1

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**Formula:**

Throughput of the pipeline = \(\frac{{number\;of\;instructions\;}}{{Total\;time\;to\;complete\;the\;instructions}}\)

OR

Throughput = number of instructions executed per unit time = 1/T_{p}

**Calculation:**

__CASE 1:__

Initial stage delays:

800, 500, 400 and 300 picoseconds

Number of stages = 4

In case of pipeline, CPI = 1

Here, max stage delay = 800 picoseconds

As, we have to find the increase in throughput so just consider the stage delays, ignore other units.

So, throughput in initial case = \(\frac{1}{{800}}\)

__CASE 2__

Updated stage delay:

600, 350, 500, 400, 300 picoseconds

Max stage delay = 600 picoseconds

Throughput in this case = \(\frac{1}{{600}}\)

So, percentage increase in throughput = \(\frac{{\left( {\frac{1}{{600}} - \frac{1}{{800}}} \right)}}{{\frac{1}{{800}}}} = 33.33\% \)

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